Contains ingredients important for the synthesis of dopamine, a catecholamine important for positive affect, mood, and memory*
N-acetyl-L-cysteine: Advanced precursor to L-cysteine that offers greater stability and membrane permeability than regular L-cysteine .*
L-cysteine increases glutathione (GSH) and regulates glutamatergic signaling [2,3].*
Glutathione provides antioxidant protection and is an important mediator of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons as excess dopamine production can form reactive oxygen species that can damage cells .
N-acetyl-L-tyrosine: L-tyrosine is a precursor to catecholamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.
Mucuna cochinchinensis seed extract (99% L-DOPA): Natural source of L-DOPA . L-DOPA crosses the blood-brain barrier and is the direct precursor to dopamine.*
Vitamins B and C: Active forms of vitamin B6, folate, and C are important for catecholamine synthesis [6-8].*
References:  Rushworth G and Megson I. Pharmacol Ther. 2014;141(2):150-9.  Schmitt B, et al. Redox Biol. 2015;6:198-205.  Berk M, et al. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2013;34(3):167-77.  Smeyne M and Smeyne R. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;62:13-25.  Tuleun C, et al. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2008;20(10).  Dakshinamurti K, et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;585:128-44.  Levine M, et al. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(24):12942-7.  Stahl S. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(9):1352-3.